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Provision the development databaseλ︎

To keep the development environment self-contained the H2 in-memory database will be used for development of the application. Postgresql database will be used for testing and live environments hosted in the Cloud.

Add H2 database library dependencyλ︎

Edit the deps.edn file in the root of the project directory. In the :deps hash-map, add next.jdbc library as a main dependency.

As the H2 database is only used for development create a :dev alias include an :extra-deps section for the H2 driver

 {org.clojure/clojure        {:mvn/version "1.10.1"}
  org.seancorfield/next.jdbc {:mvn/version "1.1.569"}}}

   {:extra-deps {com.h2database/h2 {:mvn/version "1.4.200"}}}}}

Create a namespace for database accessλ︎

Create a new file in the project called src/practicalli/database-access.clj which will contain the code for accessing the database.

Require the next.jdbc namespace using the jdbc alias.

(ns practicalli.database-access
  (:require [next.jdbc :as jdbc]))

next.jdbc will use the database specification to look up the driver namespace for the specific database. Therefore the database driver namespaces do not need to be explicitly required in the namepace.

Specifying the database and connectionλ︎

H2 in-memory database is used as a self-contained database, providing a simple way to start evaluating the schema and queries as they are designed.

Use next.jdbc library to define a database specification, represented as a map. For the H2 database only the database type and database name are required. No roles or credentials are used to access the database as it is only running locally.

Use the database specification to create a connection

;; Database specification and connection

;; Development environment
;; H2 in-memory database
(def db-specification-dev {:dbtype "h2" :dbname "banking-on-clojure"})

;; Database connection
(def data-source-dev (jdbc/get-datasource db-specification-dev))

The database specification is used to create a database connection. A general name can be used here as only one database will be used for one environment.

Aero for multiple environment configuration

juxt/aero is a library for managing configurations across multiple environments in a single EDN file. aero can be used to hold the details of each database specification for every environment (dev, staging, live).

(read-config ( "config.edn")) with the configuration file in the resources directory of the classpath. This is accessible from the Jar and the REPL.

Using connections effectivelyλ︎

Use the with-open function to manage the database connections and ensure the connects are closed after the sql queries complete.

(with-open [connection (jdbc/get-connection data-source-dev)]
  (jdbc/execute! connection ["SQL statement"]))

When multiple SQL queries should be run together, the with-open function enables reuse of the connection and ensure the connection is cleaned up once the SQL statements are complete.

(with-open [connection (jdbc/get-connection data-source-dev)]
  (jdbc/execute! connection ["SQL statement"])
  (reduce my-fn init-value (jdbc/plan connection ["SQL statement"]))
  (jdbc/execute! connection ["SQL statement"]))

Close JDBC Connections

next.jdbc uses raw Java JDBC types so it is important to close connections to avoid issues.