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Behaviour Driven Developmentλ︎

Behaviour Driven Development Workflow conceptually

Behaviour-driven development (BDD) is an evolution of the ideas behind agile software delivery. With its roots in test-driven development, domain-driven design, and automated acceptance testing, BDD focuses on the ways an application is expected to work - its behaviour.

Understanding your domain and who your stakeholders are, identifying and exploring requirements, automating acceptance criteria, and delivering working and tested software.

BDD is writing software that matters

Introducing BDD - Dan North

BDD conceptsλ︎

Concept Description
Outside-in understand system usage from the outside (user interfaces) inwards
Pull based system Produce only that which is ready to be used by people, systems, or code closer to a boundary or UI
Multiple stakeholder Core and incidental stakeholders - Core stakeholders define the vision and often provide budget; Incidental stakeholders support the solution delivery and may influence that solution
Multiple scale BDD applied from end to end, from small feature set to enterprise projects
High automation Automation of testing (acceptance & unit) hence reducing the expense of scenario and examples testing; Enabling and inviting change through acceptance tests and reducing the impact of change
Features A slice through the whole solution; defined by multiple scenarios describing interactions stemming from user interface (outside-in). Features are defined with respect to business value
Feature Injection Only work on features that deliver value, according to the project vision/goals (in the context of the organisations goals)
Ubiquitous language Using the language of the domain consistently, end to end in the solution artefacts; name things with respect to their behavior in the domain. Using Given,When,Then also provides structure to the ubiquitous language

Behaviour Driven Development mind map

Example Exerciseλ︎

This is a BDD style description of the case study requirements for the service called Boris Bikes.

The scenarios give you ideas of behaviour you should consider when trying to implement the case study in a Test Driven Development approach.

Pick a scenario and write one or more tests that will satisfy that scenario.

The Features here are not necessarily in line with the scenarios, please feel free to create new features that are more relevant.

City Bike Hire Service

Feature: City Bikes Service
  In order to provide a convenient way to get around the City of London
  As the Mayor of a city
  I want to provide a bike hire service

  Scenario: scenario name
    Given .
    When .
    Then .

Feature: Commute around the city quickly
  In order to get around London quickly
  As a commuter tired of using the tube (and tube strikes)
  I want to hire a bike to get me around central London

  Scenario: Hire a bike
    Given there is a bike available for hire
    When I identify myself to the bike hire station
    Then I get access to the bike

  Scenario: Return a bike
    Given I have taken a bike for hire
    When I identify myself to the bike hire station
    And return the bike correctly
    Then my bike hire ends
    And payment is taken

  Scenario: Find a parking slot
    Given I have taken a bike for hire
    And my current bike station has no free slots
    When I ask the hire station for available slots
    Then I get the number of slots for the 3 nearest bike stations

  Scenario: Register
    Given .
    When .
    Then .

  Scenario: Identify myself as a registered user
    Given I am a regular rider
    When I hire a bike
    Then I use my key at the bike station to identify myself

  Scenario: See if a particular bike station has bikes
    Given .
    When .
    Then .

  Scenario: Find nearest location with available bikes
    Given .
    When .
    Then .

  Scenario: Book a bike in advance
    Given .
    When .
    Then .


Introducing BDD - Dan North Cucumber - Behaviour Driven Development Behaviour Driven Development - Wikipedia